The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD), colloquially the QUAD, is a strategic security dialogue between four countries, namely United States, Japan, Australia and India. United States of America and Australia have economic dispute while Japan (the Senkaku Islands dispute) and India have territorial disputes with china. This has generated power tussle between both the rivalries, some experts have called it a “New Cold War”.
In Dec 2004, after the deadliest natural disaster, Indian ocean tsunami, that claimed the lives of more than 228,000 people across 14 countries, these four countries made an ad-hoc group called “the tsunami core group”. This group send cargo ships, 40000 troops and other humanitarian assistance to the affected countries. Successfully serving its primary purpose, this group was later dissolved.
Keeping in view its previous impressive “ad-joint quadrilateral template” former president of Japan Shinzo Abe proposed an “An Arc of Freedom and Prosperity”. This discourse once again officially surfaced back in 2007 by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, with the assistance of Australian Prime Minister John Howard, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney by sending a signal of interest.
The primary intent of this group was to make Indo-Pacific region an inclusively prosperous and open free area by containing china. All these like minded people made an alliance called “QUAD”.
These countries considered China a threat to peace in South-China and Pacific region. Exercise Malabar, a joint military exercise of US and India with an unknown scale was started in the same direction parallel to the dialogue to counter the response of increasing Chinese military and economic future projects particularly in South China Sea.
Meanwhile Japan and Australia also joined it. In response to the QUAD, China issued formal diplomatic protests to its members calling it “ASEAN NATO”. After one decade, Indian and Japan signed “The Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement” in 2016. Japan has permanently joined the Malabar exercise with its quad members.
Such rise of the vision of the Quad, China considered it a threat to its security and sovereignty. ”We hope that relevant countries will keep in mind common interests of the regional countries and uphold the principle and do things for regional peace, stability, prosperity rather than the opposite,” Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian issued a statement.
All these countries have their own interests. India is seeing it with an eye of making her defence strong and having a permanent seat in the UNSC, while US is a strong economic rivalry of china but still, there are numerous challenges to counter China which Quad may not fulfill.